Functions of Proteins – A Brief Overview

function of proteins

This is because proteins involved in many processes in biology are catalysts which essentially ‘covalidate’ other molecules by pairing with their complementary strand counterparts. Proteins play important roles in development, differentiation and immunity, among others.


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Protein function predictions are methods that biochemistry researchers employ to specify biological or chemical functions of proteins. These proteins are typically poorly understood or predicted depending on molecular genome data. One example is fibrous protein identification, which is the task of identifying functional sequences of fibrous proteins with reference to their amino acid composition and/or size. Similarly, structural protein analysis is the task of characterizing the structure and function of proteins based on their structural description. Another area of protein science is metabolism, which involves the metabolic pathways of proteins inside living organisms. Lastly, some of the most exciting areas of protein science are metabolic functions (protein actions related to metabolism) and gene regulation, which involves regulation of gene expression in a living system.


Enzymes are protein catalysts. They work by breaking down the specific amino acid that is related to the corresponding chemical reaction generating a change in the cystine, pyridyl ester or arginine amide that results in the change of the direction of the biochemical reaction. For instance, in order to change the rate of chemical reactions in reaction cells by producing a hydrogen peroxide, an enzyme is required. Cyto Electric enzymes are those that change an electric charge by coupling an amino acid with oxygen.

Most living organisms contain protein molecules that are made up of peptides and polypeptide chains. Peptides are amino acids arranged in strings, which can be considered like beads. The string of peptide chains is made up of amino acids that can then join together to form various molecules such as amino acids, hydrolyzed peptides and simple sugars. These are called amino acids. Most of the proteins we eat are held together by amino acids.


Proteins can be classified into three different categories: macromolecules, eukaryotic molecules and multicellular molecules. Macromolecules are composed of smaller units that are made up of only one unit of protein. Eukaryotic molecules consist of pairs of proton atoms and an element for each pair. Multicellular molecules consist of an entire multicellular organism that can divide and reproduce independently.

One of the most common functions of proteins is to provide structure. Many proteins act as structural elements while most other molecules act as structural components.


Some examples of these are collagen, which serves as a connective tissue, globular proteins that make up blood clots and elastin that give skin its elasticity. Other examples of non-protein based substances that help to maintain or improve the pH level of our bodies include fatty acids, lactic acid, malic acid, uric acid and phospholipids. Protein molecules also play a role in regulating many biochemical processes such as hormone release, growth, development and metabolism.

Several Enzymes

One of the major functions of proteins is to mediate chemical reactions that change the chemistry of cells within the body. Several enzymes are responsible for the changes that occur in the chemical environment of cells. Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions and sometimes help to stop chemical reactions from occurring in the first place. Examples of enzymes that help to maintain the pH level of the human body include cysteine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine and taurine. Cysteine and threonine are essential amino acids that also contribute to the synthesis of proteins.

Wrapping Up

Another important role of proteins in the human body is to synthesize and release certain hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. The receptors for these hormones are protein-specific receptors that have a specific set of amino acids that must be present in order for these receptors to be activated. In addition, other enzymes are responsible for the transport of these hormones into the cells where they are used by specific tissues and organs.

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