Function of proteins is one of the major questions that researchers have been asking for many years now. Proteins play vital roles in ensuring the existence of our cells. They are also responsible for the regulation of our metabolism and transport system. However, proteins are much more complex than just these three things. The first functions of proteins are as follows:
Transcription factors: These proteins directly regulate the genetic expression of genes. It plays a vital role in regulating the information involved in the development of new cells. In particular, it plays a crucial role in the regulation of the genetic expression of the genes that control cell fate (shape and size). Gene transcription can be triggered by transcription factors that are regulated by other genes or signaling pathways.
Protein molecules: These proteins are the major constituents of all living tissues and organs. They are present in great numbers in various cells throughout the body. There are two classes of protein molecules: primary and secondary proteins. They differ from one another in their sequence, structure, and usage. The primary proteins are the building blocks of all living organisms while the secondary proteins are found on the outer membrane of the cells.
Lipoproteins: This class of protein contains numerous functions, but among the most important ones are that of carrier of nutrients and energy, release of proteins into the extracellular environment, and regulation of muscle contraction. A wide range of hormones including growth hormones, steroid receptors, and insulin receptors are held accountable for the regulation of lipoprotein functions. Besides these functions, some lipoprotein lipids may play a role in the process of muscle contraction. The transport protein, however, transports substances between the cell walls and the intracellular environment.
Enzymes: These are the catalysts behind various metabolic reactions. They are particularly useful in regulating the different pathways of protein synthesis. They are also involved in DNA and RNA transcription processes and the regulation of protein synthesis and messenger riboside composition. Gene expression is another name for transcript regulation.
Peptides and Proteins: Peptides consist of chains of amino acids strung together in linear sequences. The most well known of these peptides are amino acids. The major functions of peptides are tendonitis, tendinitis, bursitis, tendon rupture and impingement syndrome. The majority of the protein structures in the body are made up of peptides. The majority of peptides are produced by enzymes and are thus considered as components of the metabolic pathways. The formation of peptides, however, requires the action of an enzyme.
Functions of Protein Synthesis
Polypeptides and proteins: These are chains of amino acids with multiple subunits. Some of the most common and widespread polypeptides are collagen, elastin, bovine serum albumin, bromelain, lactic acid, hyaluronan, albumin, cholecystokinin, fibril, myristoleic acid and polysaccharides. There are two types of protein-protein interactions: functional and nonfunctional. A study was conducted to find out which one was the more effective in enhancing wound healing in human. This study proved that both nonfunctional and functional protein-protein interactions improve healing by almost 30%.
Enzymes and proteins: There are two types of enzymes, namely exoenzyme and endoenzyme. The former is a co-enzymatic component of peptides and amino acids. Endoenzymes are present in cells and tissues, where they digest proteins in the food. They can be either specific or non-specific, depending on the sequence of amino acid residues they accept.
Gene Expression: Different genes produce different proteins at different times. An example is the genes that produce collagen in our body. In the laboratory, different enzymes are used to read the genes and convert them into proteins. Some of the most widely studied enzymes are sirtuins and signaling pathways. Gene therapy is a technique using gene therapy, engineered with genetic information, to correct cell behavior and enhance function of proteins.
Enzymes and proteins used in protein synthesis: The role of enzymes is to catalyze the synthesis of polypeptides. A peptide is a single DNA molecule with an amino acid sequence designed to make a chemical reaction. Protein synthesis is carried out by enzymes.
Energetic versus thermogenic effects: The term energetics refers to changes of internal energy levels (orgaintenance, creation, and destruction) and thermogenesis refers to changes of internal heat. During protein synthesis, an enzyme will convert an amino acid into a pair of complementary amino acids. One of the pair of complementary amino acids will be used to synthesize a new peptide, while the other one will be used for the same purpose. This process of metabolic pathways involving enzymes is referred to as metabolism. The term thermogenics involves changes of internal heat.